Aleksander Furgal Published: 16 Jan 2024 10 min to read

Startup KPIs: What Are They and How to Measure Them?

In a realm where about 90% of startups are faced with failure, understanding and effectively utilizing KPIs becomes a critical survival tool.

By tracking KPIs over time, business owners can identify trends, patterns, and areas needing improvement, enabling them to make informed decisions about growth and optimization and attract investor attention.

For you, a startup founder, mastering the art of KPI tracking is not just about numbers; it’s about strategically navigating your venture through challenges and opportunities.

This article will delve into startup KPIs, offering insights and guidance on selecting, interpreting, and leveraging these crucial metrics. From financial health indicators like cash flow and revenue growth to customer-centric metrics like satisfaction and retention rates, you’ll learn how to align KPIs with your startup’s unique goals and stages.

Hopefully, knowledge will empower you to make data-driven decisions, optimize operations, and position your startup for sustainable growth and success.

What are startup KPIs?

As soon as you start planning out your venture, understanding Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) becomes crucial. But what exactly are KPIs?

In the startup context, KPIs are defined measurements that gauge how effective a company is at achieving its key objectives.

These metrics not only provide a foundation for improvements but also align the company’s focus on critical business areas.

KPIs come in various forms: quantitative, qualitative, leading, lagging, input, output, and process metrics. Quantitative KPIs, for instance, are distinctly measurable and involve hard numbers, like sales figures. On the other hand, qualitative KPIs focus on descriptive qualities, like customer satisfaction levels. Leading KPIs help predict future outcomes, while lagging KPIs indicate what has already occurred, such as profit or revenue generated. Input KPIs relate to resources or tasks contributing to future value, and output KPIs measure the goods or services created. Lastly, process KPIs assess the performance of a particular process within your startup, such as customer acquisition per quarter.

Implementing KPIs in a startup is more than just tracking numbers; it’s about understanding and using these indicators to drive strategic decisions and growth. Now, why do KPIs matter so much for startups? Let’s explore that in the next section.


Why are KPIs important for a startup?

KPIs are essentially the compass for a startup’s journey, guiding founders and teams through the often turbulent and unpredictable landscape of early business growth. They are not just numbers or data points; they are the indicators of progress, growth, and potential. But why are they so crucial for startups specifically?

  • Strategic decision-making and course correction: One of the primary reasons KPIs are indispensable for startups is their role in strategic decision-making. By consistently tracking the right KPIs, startups gain critical insights into their business performance, which enables them to make informed decisions. This data-driven approach is vital in the startup phase, where resources are limited and the margin for error is small. KPIs allow founders to course-correct early, ensuring the business stays on track to meet its goals.
  • Understanding business performance and scaling: KPIs provide a clear picture of how a startup is performing in relation to its high-level objectives and key results. They help in understanding not just the current state of the business but also what it would take to scale. This understanding is crucial for planning growth strategies and making operational adjustments.
  • Attracting investment: For startups seeking investment, KPIs can be a game-changer. Investors, especially venture capitalists, are highly data-oriented. They rely on KPIs to evaluate a startup’s health and potential for growth. A well-tracked set of KPIs demonstrates to investors that the founders have a deep understanding of their business and are capable of driving it towards success.
  • Guiding product development and marketing: KPIs like adoption rate, customer acquisition rate, and customer retention rate are vital for product development and marketing strategies. They help in understanding how well the product is being received by the target audience, the effectiveness of marketing efforts, and areas where improvements are necessary. This insight is invaluable for refining product offerings and marketing tactics to better meet customer needs and preferences.
  • Financial health and sustainability: Financial KPIs such as burn rate, gross margin, and cash runway are critical for assessing a startup’s financial health. These metrics help startups keep an eye on their financial stability, ensuring they have enough runway to operate and grow. Monitoring these KPIs is essential for financial planning, fundraising, and ensuring the business’s sustainability during its early stages.
  • Customer and product insights: KPIs provide a wealth of information about customers and products. Metrics like Net Promoter Score (NPS), Customer Satisfaction (CSAT), and user feedback give startups a deeper understanding of their customer base and product performance. This feedback is crucial for continuous improvement and maintaining a customer-centric approach.

In summary, KPIs are vital for startups as they provide a framework for measuring success and making informed decisions. Without KPIs, startups risk making decisions based on instinct or incomplete information, potentially leading to strategic missteps.

Many of our clients initially gravitate towards generic KPIs without considering their unique business models and market dynamics, which can skew their strategic focus. Defining KPIs demands a nuanced understanding of the startup’s specific value proposition and growth stage, ensuring metrics true reflections of progress. Our role is to guide founders beyond surface-level metrics, delving into KPIs that genuinely illuminate their path to scalable growth and market relevance. Paul Jackowski CEO, ASPER BROTHERS Let's Talk


Most notable startup KPIs

When you’re steering a startup, knowing which KPIs to focus on can mean the difference between navigating toward success or veering off course. Let’s break down some of the most important KPIs across different categories:

#1 Revenue metrics

  • Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR): MRR is pivotal for startups with a subscription-based model. It indicates the predictable and recurring revenue generated from ongoing subscriptions within a specific month. This KPI helps assess revenue stability and growth and is key in evaluating the effectiveness of the subscription model.
  • Average Revenue Per User (ARPU): ARPU measures the average revenue generated by each customer over a specific period. It’s essential for understanding customer value and the effectiveness of monetization strategies.
  • Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV): CLTV predicts the net profit expected from a customer throughout their relationship with the business. It’s crucial for assessing customer profitability, optimizing acquisition strategies, and focusing on retention efforts.

MRR = Total Number of Paying Customers × ARPU


ARPU = Total Revenue in a Period ÷ Total Number of Customers in the Same Period


CLTV = ARPU × Average Customer Lifespan


#2 Customer acquisition metrics

  • Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC): CAC calculates the average cost to acquire a new customer, encompassing marketing, advertising, and sales expenses. It’s a vital metric for evaluating the efficiency and profitability of customer acquisition strategies.
  • Conversion rate: This metric tracks the percentage of potential customers who take a desired action, like making a purchase or signing up for a newsletter. It’s critical for gauging the effectiveness of marketing campaigns and sales funnels.
  • Churn rate: The churn rate measures how many customers stop using your product or service over a given period. A high churn rate can signal customer dissatisfaction or product-market fit issues, making it a crucial metric for retention strategy.

CAC =  Total Costs Spent on Acquiring Customers ÷ Total Number of Customers Acquired


Conversion Rate = (Number of Conversions ÷ Total Number of Visitors) × 100%


Churn Rate = (Number of Customers Lost in a Period ÷ Total Number of Customers at the Start of the Period) × 100%


#3 User engagement metrics

  • Daily Active Users (DAU) and Monthly Active Users (MAU): DAU and MAU provide insights into daily and monthly user engagement and behavior patterns. These metrics are key in assessing product stickiness and the impact of marketing and retention efforts.

DAU and MAU are typically counted rather than calculated.


#4 Financial metrics

  • Burn rate: This metric indicates the rate at which a startup consumes its cash over a given period, crucial for financial planning and sustainability​.
  • Gross margin: Gross margin shows the percentage of revenue remaining after deducting direct costs. It’s vital for evaluating pricing strategies and operational profitability.
  • Cash Runway: Cash Runway estimates the time a startup has before depleting its cash, assuming the current burn rate. It is essential for financial planning and making informed business decisions.

Burn Rate = Cash at the Beginning of the Period − Cash at the End of the Period


Gross Margin = ((Revenue Cost of Goods Sold) ÷ Revenue) × 100%


Cash Runway = Current Cash Balance ÷ Monthly Burn Rate 


#5 Product metrics

  • Net Promoter Score (NPS): NPS is a measure of customer loyalty and satisfaction, indicating how likely customers are to recommend your product or service. It’s a powerful tool for assessing customer sentiment and identifying areas for improvement​.
  • Customer satisfaction (CSAT): CSAT measures the level of satisfaction customers have with your product or service, typically obtained through surveys. This metric helps understand customer perception and pain points, guiding enhancements to boost overall satisfaction.
  • User feedback and ratings: Collecting and analyzing user feedback, reviews, and ratings offer valuable insights into product performance, usability, and customer perception. This feedback is critical for continuous product improvement based on user needs and preferences.

NPS = ((Number of Promoters − Number of Detractors) ÷ Total Number of Respondents) × 100%


CSAT is typically measured through surveys and calculated as a percentage of positive responses.


User feedback is gathered and analyzed qualitatively.


#6 Marketing metrics

  • Inbound website visitors and traffic: Tracking website visitors and traffic is essential for startups focusing on building brand awareness. It helps in analyzing how users interact with your brand and optimizing your website for better conversions.
  • Brand demand: Measuring brand demand is vital for startups to understand their market positioning and brand recognition over time. Tools like Google Search Console can be used to track brand searches and measure demand.
  • Impressions and impression share: These metrics are important for gauging the reach of your marketing efforts and understanding how often your brand is being seen in the market.


Choosing your startup KPIs

Selecting the right KPIs is a critical step for any startup. The startup KPIs you choose will shape your focus and drive your team’s efforts. So, how do you pick KPIs that align with your startup’s unique goals and objectives?

  • Align your KPIs with business objectives: The most effective KPIs are those closely aligned with your startup’s high-level objectives and key results (OKRs). Your KPIs should reflect the specific goals your business is aiming to achieve. This alignment ensures that you are tracking metrics that directly contribute to your business’s success.
  • Understand the types of KPIs: There are various types of KPIs, including quantitative, qualitative, leading, lagging, input, output, and process KPIs. Quantitative KPIs involve hard numbers, like sales figures, while qualitative KPIs focus on non-numerical data, like customer satisfaction. Leading KPIs predict future outcomes, and lagging KPIs reflect past performance. Understanding these types helps in selecting the right mix of KPIs for a well-rounded view of your startup’s performance​​.
  • Consider your startup’s stage and industry: The nature of your business and its stage of development play a crucial role in determining the right KPIs. An early-stage startup focusing on product-market fit might prioritize different KPIs (like DAUs) compared to a more established startup optimizing unit economics or customer lifetime value (LTV). It’s essential to consider what’s most important for your business at its current stage and in its specific industry​.
  • Set SMART KPIs: Your KPIs should be Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound (SMART). This means they should have a clear and specific outcome, be quantifiable, achievable, aligned with your business goals, and measurable over a defined period.
  • Regularly review and adapt: The business landscape, especially for startups, is dynamic. Regularly reviewing your KPIs and being willing to adapt them as your startup evolves is crucial. This flexibility allows you to stay relevant and focused on what matters most at each stage of your business journey.
  • Involve your team in the process: Developing KPIs should be a collaborative process. Involving your team in brainstorming and selecting KPIs ensures buy-in and a deeper understanding of what these metrics represent. It also allows you to leverage diverse perspectives and insights, which can lead to a more comprehensive set of KPIs.
  • Simplify and prioritize: While it’s tempting to track a wide array of metrics, it’s more effective to focus on a few key ones. Simplifying and prioritizing your KPIs prevents data overload and keeps your team focused on the most impactful metrics. Choose KPIs that offer the most significant insights and value to your business objectives.

By carefully selecting and regularly reviewing your KPIs, you can ensure that your startup stays on track toward achieving its goals, making informed decisions, and effectively navigating the challenges of growth and change.


Evolving KPIs in emerging sectors

The startup landscape is constantly shifting, especially in emerging sectors. In this context, KPIs are dynamic and evolve as industries transform. Let’s delve into how technological advancements are reshaping these metrics.

# The new frontiers: healthtech, sustainability, and AI

In sectors like healthtech, sustainable technology, and artificial intelligence (AI), traditional financial metrics, though still relevant, are often supplemented by more nuanced KPIs.

For example, in healthtech startups, user engagement levels, patient outcomes, and adoption rates by healthcare providers become as critical as revenue metrics. In sustainability-focused companies, impact measurements such as carbon footprint reduction or energy efficiency improvements are pivotal. Meanwhile, AI startups might focus on algorithm accuracy, data processing efficiency, and technology adoption rates.


# Adapting KPIs to technological advancements

The rapid advancement of technologies such as Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR), Web3, and cybersecurity is also reshaping the KPI landscape. In VR startups, traditional engagement metrics are replaced or complemented by user immersion levels, time spent in virtual environments, and interactive user experiences. For Web3 projects, decentralized user growth, blockchain engagement metrics, and community development become key indicators of success.

Cybersecurity startups, on the other hand, might prioritize metrics like threat detection rates, response times to security breaches, and customer compliance with security protocols. As these technologies mature, the KPIs will continue to evolve, reflecting the unique challenges and opportunities they present.


# The AI and Big Data revolution in KPI tracking

AI and Big Data are not just sectors in their own right; they are also powerful tools that transform how KPIs are tracked and analyzed in all industries. These technologies enable more sophisticated predictive analytics, allowing startups to anticipate customer behavior, refine product development, and optimize operational processes.

For instance, AI can help a retail startup predict inventory needs more accurately, thereby reducing waste and increasing efficiency.


# Global trends influencing KPIs

Global trends like sustainability, remote work, and the gig economy are also influencing the KPIs that startups prioritize. A startup in the gig economy might focus on metrics like freelancer retention rates and client satisfaction scores, while a company embracing remote work might track employee productivity and engagement in a distributed environment.



As you consider the KPIs for your startup, it’s essential to take a holistic view. Understand that KPIs are not static; they need to evolve with your industry, technology, and the global business environment. By staying attuned to these changes and being willing to adapt your KPIs accordingly, you can ensure that your startup remains agile, relevant, and positioned for success in an ever-changing landscape.

As startups move forward, the integration of advanced analytics and AI in KPI tracking will likely open new avenues for predictive insights, further refining decision-making processes. The key is to stay grounded in your core objectives while being fluid in your strategies, using KPIs as your compass.



Aleksander Furgal

Content Specialist



Are you interested in news from the world of software development? Subscribe to our newsletter and receive a list of the most interesting information.


    Download our Free
    Validation E-book

    Looking for ideas on success factors you can measure? Download a free copy of our newest e-book: "15 Game-Changing Questions to Startup Validation Success."

      RELATED articles